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COVID-19 Vaccination Toolkit

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An Educational Toolkit to educate your communities on COVID-19 and the COVID-19 vaccination

ORIGINAL SARS-CO-V-2

  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2

  • The virus that causes COVID-19 (coronavirus of 2019)

  • SARS-Co-V-2 is the name of the virus/bacteria – COVID-19 is the disease/illness

  • Identified in December 2019

  • Exact origin is still unknown

  • One of the deadliest viruses in human history

COVID-19/SARS-CO-V-2 VARIANTS AND IMPACT

  • Alpha- Some mutations in spike protein make it more infectious. Believed to be 30-50% more contagious than original. Also, it is more likely to land infected people in the hospital and deadlier than original.

  • Beta- Identified at the end of 2020. 50% more contagious than the original coronavirus strain. Evidence suggests that Beta may have been more likely than any other strain to lead to hospitalization and death.

  • Delta- First identified in late 2020. Caused more than twice as many infections as previous variants. Caused more severe illness due to COVID-19 than other variants in people who weren’t vaccinated. Was

  • more likely to result in hospitalization in unvaccinated persons.

  • Omicron and subvariants (BA.5, BQ.1.1, XBB.1.5)- Identified in November 2021. More transmissible than Delta with XBB.1.5 being said to be the most transmissible strain of virus so far.

  • New mutations and variants still emerging...

TREATMENTS FOR COVID-19 (CLINICAL)

  • Initial treatment consisted of medications repurposed for COVID-19. Currently, a variety of therapeutic options are available that include antiviral drugs (e.g., molnupiravir, paxlovid, remdesivir), anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies (e.g., bamlanivimab/etesevimab, casirivimab/imdevimab, sotrovimab, bebtelovimab), anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., dexamethasone), immunomodulator agents (e.g., baricitinib, tocilizumab) are available under FDA issued Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) or being evaluated in the management of COVID-19.

  • All clinical treatments based on the severity of illness or certain risk factors.

EVOLUTION HISTORY EFFICACY

  • Preventive measures: 2 goals- prevent severe illness/hospitalization and prevent spread/infection rates

  • Non-clinical measures were the first line of defense

  • Sheltering in place, social distancing, masking mandated, increased access to testing, frequent hand washing, and hand sanitizing.

  • Quarantining: 14-days isolation for infected individuals.

  • COVID-19 vaccination

 

COVID-19 VACCINATION

  • Introduced December of 2020

  • Fastest produced vaccination in American history

  • After 911, the US signed into law the Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness Act which helped spawn initiatives and measures that called for more preparedness to protect against natural or human made threats.

  • Vaccine manufacturers: Pfizer, Moderna, and Janssen (Johnson and Johnson)

  • Monovalent- Protection against 1 strain of virus

  • Bivalent- Protection against 2 strains of virus

VACCINE EFFICACY

  • Pfizer and Moderna vaccines said to be up to 95% effective at preventing severe illness/hospitalization in original variants.

  • Johnson and Johnson vaccine said to be up to 70% effective at preventing severe illness/hospitalization in original variants. Efficacy waned over the course of months- reason boosters were recommended.

  • Monovalent formulation ineffective against Delta and Omicron variants. A major reason for formulating and prescribing bivalent booster

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4 MAJOR DOSING CHANGES

 

2 shot series to Primary series and a booster Sept. 2021

  • Evidence showed: Efficacy began to wane over time Immunocompromised (individuals on immunosuppressants) needed a 3rd dose to adequately protect against virus.

Primary series and booster + booster in vulnerable populations

  • Evidence showed: Vulnerable populations (older individuals, individuals with obesity, diabetes, high bp, asthma, heart diseases, etc.) were found to be at increased risk of severe illness/hospitalizations. These individuals required more medicine to protect against severe illness.

  • Previously prescribed amount of medication not protecting against new variants.

Primary series + bivalent

  • Evidence showed: A new formulation was needed to protect against multiple variants.

Bivalent only

  • Evidence showed: Natural immunity provided a layer of protection against severe illness and a majority of people in the U.S. have been previously infected with a SARS-Co-V-2 virus strain providing some natural immunity to protect against severe illness. Vaccination uptake low in individuals who haven’t received a vaccination, have only received 1 dose or have just received primary series dosing. Reduction in the amount of prescribed medicine hopes to encourage vaccination uptake in these individuals.

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